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作为设计师应合理处理好住宅区与城市交通规划

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发布日期:2013-11-25
由于香港浙江铭扬工程设计有限公司的业主国内外人士都有,所以这篇文章,我以英文翻译一次给大家看,以便外国朋友也能学习到一些这方面的知识。
 
    近年来各个城市在道路建设上花费了大量资金、人力,取得了明显成绩,人均道路面积增加了不少。可是从路网的密度看,城区的支路密度是普遍偏低的。按规范,城市支路道路网密度是3-4公里/平方公里,如果是一般商业集中地区应为10-12公里/平方公里,如果市中心区的建筑容积率达到8时,宜为12-16公里/平方公里。支路道路网密度低于这个指标,堵车是必然的。再宽的主干道,再多的快速路和立交,也解决不了交通堵塞问题。
(construction and manpower, has achieved obvious results, per capita road area is increased a lot. But look from the density of road network, the city branch density is generally low. According to the specification, the city branch road network density is 3-4 km/sq km, if is general commercial centers should be 10 to 12 km/sq km, if the building volume rate of 8 in downtown, appropriate for a 12-16 kilometers per square kilometers. Branch road network density is lower than the index, the traffic is inevitable. Wide main again, no amount of expressway and interchange, also cannot solve the traffic jam problem。)
城市各级道路应成为划分城市各分区、组团、各类城市用地的分界线。比如城市一般道路和次干道可能成为划分小街坊或小区的分界线;城市次干道和主干道可能成为划分大街坊或居住区的分界线;城市交通性干道和快速道路及两旁绿带,可能成为划分城市分区或功能区的分界线。
(Urban roads at all levels should be divided into urban areas, groups, all kinds of urban land line. Such as urban general road and time artery could be divided into small neighborhood or village boundaries; Urban trunk road and main street may be divided into large neighborhood or residential area boundary; Urban traffic trunk road and fast road and green belt on both sides, can be divided the dividing partition or function。)
不同的城市设计、建筑设计、建筑风格和社区文化,会形成各具特点的城市形象。比如是北京的胡同、四合院已是北京古城风貌的重要元素。而在曼哈顿的棋盘式街道中,南北斜穿了一条百老汇大街,形成许多三角地带,如时报广场、熨斗大楼,丰富了城市景观。在北部又安排了一个中央公园和大片绿地,成为城市的一叶“绿肺”。在美国大学任教的丹麦建筑教授——汉普列根,创导了SAR理论,即支撑体理论。该理论认为,住宅基本上由支撑体、结构、交通管道核心筒和填充体隔墙、房间组成。前者不能随意变化,后者则是可以灵活布置的。推而广之,在城市中也有支撑体和填充体。前者是道路、市政条件,后者是指由街道围成的街坊、小区建筑。只要把支撑体规划好,填充体就可丰富多彩、百花竞放。这就是比较切合实际并且是有可持续发展观点的城市规划方法。
(Different urban design, architectural design, architectural style and community culture, characteristic to form the image of the city. Such as Beijing's hutongs and courtyard are important elements of the ancient city of Beijing style. In the chessboard of Manhattan street, north and south inclined wore a Broadway, forming many triangle, such as times square, the iron building, enrich the city landscape. In the north and arranged a central park and large green space, become a city of "green lung". In the United States, a professor at the university of Denmark, architecture - hampshire column root, guide the theory of SAR, the supporting body theory. The theory is that residential basically by supporting body, the structure, the transportation pipeline of core tube and filling body partition, room. The former can't change, the latter can be flexible layout. By extension, in the city also has a supporting body and filling body. The former is roads, municipal conditions, the latter refers to the neighborhood surrounded by streets, community building. As long as the support plan, filling body can be rich and colorful and varied. This is more realistic and method of urban planning is a sustainable development perspective.)
中国近现代的城市住区形式大致出现了街区,如里弄式、街坊式、胡同四合院、邻里单位、居住区和综合区,如开发区、商务区中混建住宅区等各种形式。居住小区和住宅区的模式已有大量的实践经验,并有相应的国家规范作指导,但这不是唯一的住区建设模式。由于住区和城市道路系统有密切的关系,在城市不同区位,住区的形式应有不同的方式。以北京为例,住宅小区成片开发,规模越来越大。有的开发商已提出“造城运动”、“新住宅运动”,要造新城,要在风景区、绿化水景边大造低密度住宅。原有的居住区规划模式不能无限扩大,成为小城镇的模式。前者可由开发商去建设,后者可就是政府职能范围的事了。开发商没必要,也不可能去替代政府职能,总揽城市规划与建设的问题。如果在三环路内再成片开发居住小区,势必造成“肠梗塞”,打乱街道路网的合理布局;如果在五、六环路绿化带附近大片开发低密度住宅区,势必成为“羊拉屎”。这不仅违背了中国“地少人多”的国情,叶有悖于节地原则,而且这些孤立的小区各自为政,势必带来交通、市政、公建配套、城市管理、节能、环保等隐患。设个模式值得学习的。
(Chinese modern city residential areas form a block roughly, such as manual type, neighborhood type, hutong courtyard, neighbourhood units, residential area, and the compound, such as a variety of forms such as mixing in the development zone and CBD residential area. Patterns of residential area and residential area has a lot of practical experience, and have corresponding national standards as a guide, but this is not the only model of residential construction. Due to residential and has a close relationship between city road system, different location in the city, residential form should have a different way. In Beijing, for example, the development of residential area and the size bigger and bigger. Some developers have put forward the "city", "new housing movement", to build a new town, to be at the edge of the scenic area, green water features large low-density residential. The original residential area planning mode cannot be enlarged unlimitedly, become the pattern of small towns. The former can be made of developers to build, the latter is the scope of the functions of the government. Developers don't need to, also won't be able to replace the functions of the government, commanding the problem of city planning and construction. If within the 3rd ring into residential area development, certainly will cause the bowel infarction, disturb the street network reasonable layout; If green belts in five or six loop around the large development low density residential area, is bound to become a "sheep shit". This not only violated China "more than less people", the state of the union goes against the principle in rhythmic, and these isolated village fragmented, is bound to bring traffic, municipal and public facilities, urban management, energy saving, environmental protection etc. Set a model worthy of learning.)
拿北京来举例,在北京的亦庄经济技术开发区,我觉得是蛮成功的。第一点,它不是单一的工业开发区,而是综合性极度强的开发区。该区的居住区不是“卧城”,不少居民可以就地上班,可以解决很多就业问题;第二点,它的区位离城市较远,通过京津塘高速路连接,是典型的卫星城布局形式,不会成为城市“摊大饼”式的边缘地带;第三点,它的街道采取了棋盘式格网形式,既有北京旧城的传统格局,又为分期开发创造条件。街道之间的地块大小适中,既可小块开发,又可联片开发:第四点,它的建设模式采用了二级开发。一级开发,由区管委会负责,把生地开发成熟地,保证“六通一平”,先建热力、动力、电讯、管理中心。二级开发由开发商或公司单位、业主自行开发。在城区内,三、四环路以内大片开发综合区,交通问题往往成为最急迫的问题。
(Take the example of Beijing, in Beijing as well economic technique development zone, I think is really successful. First of all, it is not a single industrial development zone, but extremely strong comprehensive development zone. The area of the residential area is not "lie the city", many residents can on-site work, can solve a lot of employment problem; Second, its location far from the city, through the jingjintang highway connection, is a typical satellite city layout form, will not be the edge of the city "booth pie" type; Third, it took the streets of chessboard type grid form, both the traditional pattern of Beijing old city, and create conditions for developing stages. Street between the lot size is moderate, as well as small pieces of development, but also joint development: for the fourth, its construction model adopted in secondary development. The level of development, by the district management committee is responsible for, radix rehmanniae developed maturely, guarantee "six and one leveling", first built heat, power, telecommunications, management center. The secondary development by developers or company unit, developed by the owner. Within the urban area, three, large development within the compound, the fourth ring road traffic problems often become the most urgent problem.)
有些业内人士提出过这样一个理论,TOD理论,即:介绍了国外城市在这方面的经验。这种土地利用和公共交通系统之间的结合是一种很有效率的开发模式,可以有效减少交通堵塞和空气污染。这种系统充分重视区域性公共交通系统和居民步行距离。整个TOD杜区内拥有居住、工作、商业、文化公共空间的混合用地,大大减少环境和社会成本。这将对我们传统的以小汽车为导向的城市道路系统来说是一种新的挑战。例如:我们的香港,在交通方面就处理得很好,虽然香港的马路都比较小,但是香港的交通从来不堵。这说明什么呢?景观设计师所要做的就是要在学经景观规划设计、建筑设计、环境景观设计等等知识的基础上,要结合实际案例和著名景观设计公司设计的案例去分析,总结。要使自己的设计成果更加有力与民。设计绝对不是平平凑凑的问题,设计是一个民生工程,这是作为一名合格景观设计师、优秀设计师所应该认识的深度。

(Some in the industry put forward a theory, TOD theory, namely: the city's experience in this field in foreign countries is introduced. This kind of combination between land use and public transportation system is a very efficient development mode, can effectively reduce traffic congestion and air pollution. This system fully attaches great importance to the regional public transport system and the walking distance of the residents. The TOD du district live, work, business, culture, public space of the mixed land use, greatly reduce the environmental and social costs. This will be for our traditional car oriented city road system is a new challenge. We in Hong Kong, for example, in the aspect of traffic handling well, while Hong Kong road are small, but Hong Kong's traffic never. That means what? Landscape designers have to do is to XueJing landscape planning and design, architectural design, landscape design and so on knowledge, on the basis of to combine the actual cases and famous landscape design company design case analysis, summarized in this paper. To make their designs more powerful and the people. Design is definitely not along on the problem, the design is a livelihood project, this is as a qualified designer, excellent designers should know the depth.)